Stock Handling & Animal Welfare

UNE researchers find virtual fencing is less stressful for sheep

Sheep Central, December 16, 2020

UNE PhD student Tellisa Kearton, left, and post-doctoral researcher Danila Marini with sheep collars used as part of the virtual fencing research. Image – Supplied.

VIRTUAL fencing of sheep using audio signals and electric pulses to train the animals to respect a boundary is far less stressful than other standard farming practices, University of New England researchers have found.

Post-doctoral researcher Danila Marini and PhD candidate Tellisa Kearton are completing a series of complex experiments that measured sheep stress responses to virtual fencing, as well as its effectiveness for managing intensive, rotational grazing.

A virtual fence is an invisible line in the landscape that can be created on a map on a tablet, and moved or erased at the farmer’s touch. Animals wearing a GPS-enabled neckband or collar are warned of the presence of the invisible “fence” through an audio cue and then, if the beep is ignored, the collar delivers a short, mild electric pulse.

Danila has discovered that sheep eat the same amount of food behind a virtual fence, in much the same way as if contained by electric fencing.

“They behave normally, graze normally, without any stress, and learn very quickly how to interact with the fence,” she said.

“This is exciting new technology that appears to be welfare-friendly,” Danila said.

Cost-benefit analysis by the University of Melbourne is also showing that virtual fencing cuts the costs of permanent infrastructure while retaining the benefits of time-limited grazing systems often with improved productivity and reduced labour.

A barking dog is more stressful than a virtual fence

A commercial version of the neckband is currently being tested in the beef industry in New South Wales and Queensland, but the sheep industry is lagging a little behind. Danila and Tellisa hope their findings may expedite the development of an automated neckband for sheep.

UNE said Tellisa’s comparative experiments explored how sheep respond physiologically and behaviourally to the audio and electrical stimuli. Combining video analysis and measurements of cortisol levels and body temperature, she found that sheep were more stressed by a barking dog than the fence’s beep. Similarly, the restraint associated with crutching or shearing was more stressful than the electrical pulse they received if they tried to breach a virtual fence.

“Once the sheep recognise that the beep indicates the boundary, it’s no more problematic than any other fence, and that’s been an important finding,” Tellisa said.

“It’s very similar to the principles of a normal electric fence, except that it is an audio barrier rather than a visual, physical one.”

Sheep are fast learners

Tellisa also discovered that sheep learn to interact with a virtual fence very quickly, after about three interactions over a day or two, and that social learning is possible.

“We think individual ewes may be able to teach their lambs how to interact safely with the virtual fence, and while this maternal learning warrants more investigation, it has applications for when and how a farmer implements fencing within a mob,” she said.

“It may, for example, be better to introduce the virtual fences immediately after lambing, to educate the lambs all together.”

The UNE research has been supported by the Rural R&D for Profit program run by the Federal Department of Agriculture, Water and the Environment, with investments by livestock industry research agencies, several universities (including UNE), CSIRO, and Agersens, the company commercialising the technology. Now, the Grains Research and Development Corporation and Australian Wool Innovation are also interested in seeing the research continue.

Tellisa received a three-month extension to her scholarship from UNE, in order to complete her thesis during trying COVID conditions.

To read the complete research paper, The Influence of Predictability and Controllability on Stress Responses to the Aversive Component of a Virtual Fence, click here.


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  1. Nathan Horst, January 4, 2022

    It is wonderful that this research is being done and I applaud those making it happen. To all you naysayer’s: they said the internet was a joke too. One would still, of course, want a good perimeter fence of the normal kind to keep out predators and make sure for sure that none got free, if for some reason their collar stopped working. But as someone that has spent way too many hours moving and maintaining temporary and permanent interior fencing, I can say this would a huge, huge help. It would give the ability to move the flock literally my moving the lines on the controller. Add in a good drone for checking the flock and it could literally enable you go on vacation and still be able to check and move a flock of several thousand or more completely remotely. Someone on call in case something happened that needed a physical person there would be all that would be needed. You could also potentially have thinner ewes and/or lambs set to have a larger space and be able to creep graze ahead of the main flock.
    The possibilities are endless. Mowing, fertilizing, etc. of the pasture would be much simpler as well as it would be one big field and no dealing with interior fences. Maybe it would only work on hair sheep or it would take a bit extra collar maintenance with wool sheep, but it’s worth it totally. And to those who question having a collar on the sheep at all – we’ve had sheep wearing bell collars for centuries. So get off your high horse. The sheep industry will die if it does not adapt and innovate.

  2. Dean B Beynon, February 6, 2021

    Regarding the “collar” on sheep for electronic fence warning system: it is my opinion that these collars on all sheep and with particular reference to wool producing sheep, will be a huge detriment to any farm animal. Sheep will get fly strike and also the restriction of this type of gadget will require multiple adjustments annually as wool grows. It will need to removed and replaced at shearing. This is a job that many will not have time to attend to and it will be a danger to the welfare of the sheep for becoming ensnared upon fences, trees and other obstacles. A rethink on the application of such things may eventually come up with a safe, secure electronic fence. Thank you.

  3. Lloyd Dunlop, January 27, 2021

    I like the reference to sheep intelligence in this report. I always say it takes a smart man to out-think a sheep.
    New applications might be shrinking the “fenced area” on the screen to muster the sheep, keeping shorn and woolly mobs separated in movements?
    Next if there is a demonstrated “mob learning ” effect, are fewer collars needed or transferable to the next mob?

  4. John Marriott, December 17, 2020

    Just great news. We now need to get on with the research to develop a tag/chip/bolus — as an alternative device to a collar — that will allow this technology to be practical and commercially available. Well done, Danila.

    • Donald Cameron, December 17, 2020

      Exactly when were farmers last asked to nominate subjects for researchers to investigate?

      UNE researchers should be working to help us, with practical and in demand help, such as footrot, mulesing and alternative markets to China, not just gaze at stars with airy-fairy “virtual ideas”, all the while pocketing fat salaries at our expense.
      Whilst diabolical thoughts cross Joe Farmer’s mind in his back paddock who dreams of better times…

  5. Donald Cameron, December 16, 2020

    Is the research UNE conducts productive?

  6. Anthony Clancy, December 16, 2020

    Until this become common use, the benefits are restricted to the occasional property. The question that springs to mind for me is what happens if one or more learn they can break through and as well is there reduced protection from foxes, dogs and pigs when no steel fence is there to offer whatever protection it offers? It would interesting to see whether sound arrays can be used, without killing livestock, to kill cats dogs pigs and foxes.

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